There are several methods of learning a new language. Some include; vocabulary-based method, grammar-based method, the communicative method, immersion method, and double translation method. These methods are the most basic ways and are suitable for anyone in any age group.
The method claims that language can be imitated in the manner in which children learn. They see an object and say by relating to its representation. Its emphasis is on new words acquisition by giving the learner a picture and a word to mean the given image. In this case, the learner masters the word by seeing the picture. Repetition is highly recommended. Grammar rules are unconsciously learned through repetition. This method has two main benefits; quick vocabulary acquisition and pictures assist in visualizing learners’ memory of the vocabulary. This method can be disadvantageous because it does not include stress grammar and you may know the language but never speak it.
This method was used mainly before 1900. In this method, as the name suggests, you are required to get the target language book and get a dictionary that translates words from English to the target language. From there use the dictionary to translate and note down. Again use the dictionary to decipher your translation back to the target language and look at the difference from the original work. The benefits of this method are that it helps in studying a new language that is examinable not to speak and also acts as an introduction to the target language. The main limitations of this methods are that it is a tiresome way of learning a new language and relies mainly on the accuracy of the dictionary and spelling.
It incorporates some vocabularies at the beginning with a vast amount of grammar rules which requires memorization. Vocabularies are re-combined in several ways to point out grammar points. As time goes by, vocabularies are developed, and new grammar is introduced gradually. Stress is put on reading and also writing in the new language. It is straightforward to use vocabularies when you know grammar rules. The limitation of this method is that it requires lots of repetition for you to memorize grammar rules and also the learner can be bored at the beginning because of limited vocabulary.
This is a conventional method of learning a new language in schools. Students are required to learn one receptive skill, reading or speaking, and combine with one productive skill, writing or speaking, with grammar and subject-based vocabulary. Stress is on quick language acquisition. This method helps in developing student competence and manage to utilize the language appropriately. This method is time-consuming as it does not look at the abilities of a student.
As the name suggests, in this method the learner is expected to join foreign speakers and try to talk with the local, listen to them as they speak, radio or even attend a cinema or a theatre and listen. It’s learning by experience no study is required. It is a forceful way of learning a language. It is difficult to read and write, and this method puts you in an awkward situation.
The method to be used depends on the learning style preference and primary objectives. Grammar-based method and vocabulary-based are mainly used by starters who want to rely on themselves before embarrassing themselves with the immersion method of learning a new language.